Optimized Design of Adhesive Formations for Tennis Ball

 X. Y. Zha

P.E Department, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China

Cite this paper
X. Y. Zhang, “Optimized Design of Adhesive Formations for Tennis Ball”, Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research and Developments, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 217-225, 2016.DOI:10.7508/jmerd.2016.01.030

ABSTRACT: By studying the effects of reinforcing system, tackifier, vulcanization system and solvent on properties of tennis ball adhesive (of which the main material is NR), the purpose of this article is to achieve the optimized design for adhesive formulations of tennis ball. Optimized formulation is: NR100, carbon black N220 of 30, zinc oxide of 8.3, stearic acid of 2.2, phenolic tackifying resin of 3, accelerator CZ/D of 1.5/1 and sulfur of 3. Using this formulation could make the obtained adhesive with good properties, and accordingly make the finished balls with excellent adhesive properties and air-tightness as well as meet the design requirements. 

Keywords : Tennis ball; NR; Adhesives; Formulation design; Adhesive properties; Material properties; Air-tightness

[1] Liangping Huang: The Research of the Property of TPI and CR Blended Rubber. Rubber Industry, 2006, 53(5): 294~296.  
[2] Ming Jiang: The Study of Memory Materials Formed by the Mixture of HDPE and TPI. Plastic Technology, 2005, 1(65): 23~2.
[3] Guiyi Wang: The Application of Rubber Process Analyzer on Rubber Research. Special Purpose Rubber Products, 2001, 1(22): 56~62.
[4] Ed.F.Erdogan: ASTM STP 1220, 1995. American Society for Testing and Material, 380~396.
[5] Costas, C.Gogos: Melting Phenomena and Mechanisms in Polymer Processing Equipment. Advances in Polymer Technology, 1998, 17(4): 285-305.
[6] Marcia C. Fernanda M. Waterborne anionic polyurethanes and poly (urethane-urea)s: influence of the chain extender on mechanical and adhesive properties. Polymer Test.2000, 19: 939-952
[7] LIN Ke-Liang. Equivalent Heat Tansfer Coefficient at Casting/Mould interface and its Inverse Problem. Herbin institute of Technology. 2000.
[8] Adrians,Kazunorik,Spinath.: Heat transfer boundary conditions for the numerals of the DC casting process. Light Metal, 2004(11):667-672.
[9] Pérez-Limiñana M.A., Arán-Aís F., Torró-Palau A.M., et al. Characterization of waterborne polyurethane adhesive containing different amounts of ionic groups. International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives. 2005, 25: 507-517.
[10] Pérez-Limiñana M.A., Arán-Aís F., Torró-Palau A.M., etal. Influence of the hard-to-soft segment ratio on the adhesion of water-borne polyurethane adhesive. Journal of Adhesion Science & Technology. 2007, 21 (8): 755-773
[11] Bum Soo K, Byung Kyu K. Enhancement of Hydrolytic Stability and Adhesion of Waterborne Polyurethanes. Joural of applied polymer science. 2005, 97: 1961-1969
[12] Hsaing M., Chang C., Chan M., et al. A study of polyurethane ionomer dispersant.Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2005, 96 (1): 103-111
[13] Beaud F., Niemz P., Pizzi A.. Structure–Property Relationships in One-Component Polyurethane Adhesives for Wood: Sensitivity to Low Moisture Content. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2006, 101 (6): 4181-4192
[14] Fratričová M, Šimon P, Schwarzer P, etal. Residual stability of polyurethane automotive coatings measured by chemiluminescence and equivalence of Xenotest and Solisi ageing tests. Polymer Degradation and Stability. 2006, 91 (1): 94-100
[15] Mohammad M.R, Han-Do K. Synthesis and Characterization of Waterborne Polyurethane Adhesives Containing Different Amount of Ionic Groups (I). Joural of applied polymer science. 2006, 102: 5684-5691
[16] Nomura Y., Sato A., Sato S., et al. Synthesis of novel moisture-curable polyurethanes end-capped with trialkoxysilane and their application to one-component adhesives. Journal of polymer science Part A: Polymer Chemistry. 2007, 45 (13): 2689-2704
[17] Rahman M., Kim H.. Effect of polyisocyanate hardener on adhesive force of waterborne polyurethane adhesives. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2007, 104 (6):3663-3669
[18] Rahman M., Yoo H., Mi C., et al. Synthesis and characterization of waterborne polyurethane/clay nanocomposite – Effect on adhesive strength. Macromolecular Symposia. 2007, 249-250 (1): 251-258
[19] Ayres E., Orefice R.L., Yoshida M.I.. Phase morphology of hydrolysable polyurethanes derived from aqueous dispersions. European Polymer Journal 2007, 43 (8):3510-3521
[20] Zhang S.B., Jiang H.M., Xu Y.M., et al. Thermal and Crystalline Properties of Water-borne Polyurethanes Based on IPDI, DMPA, and PEBA/HNA. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2007 (103): 1936-1941
[21] Palanisamy A, D.B. Rohini K. Anionomeric Waterborne Poly (urethane semicarbazide) Dispersions and Their Adhesive Properties. Joural of applied polymer science. 2008, 110: 2833-2840
[22] Orgilés-Calpena E., Arán-Aís F., Torró-Palau A.M., etal. Effect of annealing on the properties of waterborne polyurethane adhesive containing urethane-based thickener.International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives. 2009, 29: 774-780
[23]  Orgilés-Calpena E., Arán-Aís F., Torró-Palau A.M., etal. Addition of different amounts of a urethane-based thickener to waterborne polyurethane adhesive. International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives. 2009, 29: 309-318
[24] Rainer P.: Trends in Tire Building Technology. Tire Technology International, 2009, 32-36.
[25] Meili Zhang, Wenjie Zhagn, Jinchang Sheng: Membrane Finite Element Method for Simulation Flow in Porous Medium. Water Science and Engeneering, 2009.
[26] Rod Cross, Graham Pollard,Grand slam men’s singles tennis 1991—2009 serve speed and other related date. ITF coaching and sport science review, 2009, 16(49),8-10.
[27] Borzenski Frank: Advancements in Mixing Technologies: PartII. Rubber World, 2010, 235(5): 16-19.
[28] Borzenski Frank: Advancements in Mixing Technologies: PartIII. Rubber World, 2010, 235(6): 21-25.
[29] Tom Allen, Steven Haake, Simon Goodwill: Comparison of a Finite Element Model of a Tennis Racket to Experimental Data. Sports Engineering Association. 2010, 12:87-98
[30] Takayuki Oidemizu: The Quest for the Perfect Racket: Advances in Tennis Racket Design, niumin. Volume XV Issue IL, May 5, 2014